Sabino is currently an umbrella descriptive term encompassing the white patterns White Spotting (W) and Sabino1 (SB1). Sabino is generally characterized by high white, belly spots, all white, wide blazes, "chrome", lacy white spots, body spotting that is not one of the other pinto patterns, and etc. There is a lot of ongoing research and discoveries currently going on in sabino patterns and knowledge is changing rapidly.

White Spotting (W) is a dominant pattern of which over 20 types have been found thus far and there are likely many more. White Spotting encompasses an extremely large expression of patterns. Expression ranges from a solid white coat, a near white coat, roan appearing sabino, the traditional description of a sabino, and minimally marked. Interactions between multiple white spotting patterns can have varied outcomes. White spotting generally has dark eyes, but blue or partially blue eyes are not uncommon. Many of white spotting mutations are homozygous lethals, but many others are not. W20 appears to be widespread and creates minimal white markings. Chincoteagues likely have some type of white spotting.

Tests for a number of the types of white spotting are available. There are likely many more types of white spotting, so many they will likely never all be found. White spotting is found on the KIT gene. KIT is well known to mutate frequently which results in new white patterns. The current known white spottings with the founding breed:
W1 Freiberger
W2 Thoroughbred
W3 Arabian
W4 Camarillo White Horse
W5 Thoroughbred
W6 Thoroughbred
W7 Thoroughbred
W8 Icelandic
W9 Holsteiner
W10 Quarter Horse
W11 South German Coldblood
W12 Thorougbred
W13 Crossbred Quarter Horse
W14 Thoroughbred
W15 Arabian
W16 Oldenburg
W17 Japanese Draft Horse
W18 Swiss Warmblood
W19 Arabian
W20 Found in many breeds
W21 Icelandic
W22 Thoroughbred
W23 Arabian
W24 Standardbred
W25 Thoroughbred
W26 Thoroughbred
W27 Thoroughbred

Sabino 1 (SB1) is an incomplete dominant. Horses that are all white with pink skin are homozygous for sabino1. Horses that are particolored are heterozygous for SB1. SB1 horses mostly have dark eyes, but blue eyes are not uncommon. SB1 is located on the KIT gene. There is a test available for sabino1. Based upon the consistent nature and fairly consistent appearance of sabino1 it does not appear to be present in Chincoteagues.

There are also white patterns in multiple breeds that fit the umbrella description of sabino that have not been found on the KIT gene, on which both White Spotting and Sabino1 are both found.

It is not known when sabino was introduced into Chincoteagues. The early ponies had minimal markings so it was either introduced through outcrossing or appeared through a new W mutation. If it was introduced it was likely through the outcrossing that also brought in tobiano and splash.

The ponies below have not been tested for sabino1 or any form of white spotting, and some of their markings may be actually as a result of splash. However, their white markings fit some of the common descriptions of sabino.

Dark chestnut sabino. Note wide blaze that goes over and under the lips and his pointy hind socks. Rainy's Boy, 2007, Picture by Amanda Geci.

Bay classic roan sabino. Note her unusual blaze. Rags to Riches, Picture by Amanda Geci.

Chestnut roan sabino from the Maryland herd. Note wide blaze, belly spot, and lacy socks. Photos from postcards.

Solid chestnut sabino in summer and winter coat. Phantom Mist, 2007 and 2016, Picture by Amanda Geci.

Chestnut very minimal sabino in foal coat. Note blaze that goes over and under the lips. Wild foal, 2007, Picture by Amanda Geci.

Chestnut minimal sabino as a foal and as an adult. Kayak Wave Runner, 2007, Foal picture by Amanda Geci, Adult picture courtesy of Barbara Steele.

Chestnut sabino. Note large blaze. Stormcloud, Picture courtesy of Celina Boltinghouse

Palomino sabino. Note large blaze. Historical reference. Wild pony, 1977, Picture by Joseph Spies from Wild Ponies of Chincoteague.

Possible all whites. Historical reference. Wild ponies, 1967, Screen shot from a Wild Kingdom episode.